This article identifies new infectious diseases & antimicrobial stewardship literature released in April of 2019. Hot off the press and put together here in one place!
Written By: Bassam Ghanem, Pharm.D., MS, BCPS
Edited By: Timothy P. Gauthier, Pharm.D., BCPS-AQ ID
[Last updated: 5 May 2019]
In this monthly column two pharmacists who utilize Twitter to stay current with antimicrobial stewardship literature (@ABsteward [B.G.] & @IDstewardship [T.G.]) identify some of the top hot off the press articles recently published.
The following are some of the new publications we found most interesting or noteworthy that were released in April of 2019…
1. Association of duration and type of surgical prophylaxis with antimicrobial-associated adverse events | JAMA Surgery
This large multicenter, national retrospective cohort found that increasing duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis was associated with higher odds of acute kidney injury and C. difficile infection in a duration-dependent fashion and did not lead to additional SSI reduction.
2. Two weeks versus four weeks of antibiotic therapy after surgical drainage for native joint bacterial arthritis: a prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial | Ann Rheum Dis
This randomized controlled trial found that 2 weeks of targeted antibiotic therapy is not inferior to 4 weeks in adult patients who have undergone drainage of native joint bacterial arthritis in regards to cure rate, adverse events or sequelae and leads to a significantly shorter hospital stay.
3. Effect of carbapenem resistance on outcomes of bloodstream infection caused by Enterobacteriaceae in low-income and middle-income countries (PANORAMA): a multinational prospective cohort study | Lancet ID
This multinational prospective cohort study found that carbapenem resistance is associated with increased length of hospital stay and mortality in patients with bloodstream infections in low-income and middle-income countries.
4. Defining the breakpoint duration of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia predictive of poor outcomes | CID
This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study of adult, hospitalized patients with Staph. aureus bacteremia. The study found that the choice of antibiotic therapy did not significantly affect bacteremia duration however every continued day of bacteremia was associated with relative risk of death of 1.16 with significant increase in risk starting at 3 days as determined by ROC analysis.
5. Antimicrobial resistance or delayed appropriate therapy does one influence outcomes more than the other among patients with serious infections due to carbapenem-resistant versus carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae? | OFID
This large US hospital database which identified all admissions over 3 years with evidence of serious Enterobacteriaceae infection found that delayed appropriate therapy is a more important driver of outcomes than carbapenem resistance, although the two factors are somewhat synergistic.
6. Association of Increased Colony-Count Threshold for Urinary Pathogens in Hospitalized Patients With Antimicrobial Treatment | JAMA
At a single acute care hospital raising the threshold from 10^4 CFU/mL or greater to 10^5 CFU/mL for working up potential uropathogens in urine cultures led to a reduction in antimicrobial prescribing for asymptomatic bacteriuria and candiduria without significantly changing patient outcomes.
Additional New & Notable Publications
Randomized Trial of Ceftazidime-Avibactam vs Meropenem for Treatment of Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia (REPROVE): Analyses per US FDA Specified End Points | OFID
Definitions and guidelines for research on antibiotic persistence | Nature Review Microbiology
Pharmacokinetics of Caspofungin in Critically Ill Patients in Relation to Liver Dysfunction: Differential Impact of Plasma Albumin and Bilirubin Levels | AAC
A survey of infectious diseases and microbiology clinicians in Australia and New Zealand about the management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia | CID
β-Lactam antibiotics versus Vancomycin for the Early Treatment of Enterococcal Bacteraemia: a Retrospective Cohort Study | IJAA
Host immune markers distinguish C. difficile infection from asymptomatic carriage and non-C. difficile diarrhea | CID
On- and off-label utilization of dalbavancin and oritavancin for Gram-positive infections | JAC
Comparative performance of urinary biomarkers for vancomycin induced kidney injury according to timeline of injury | AAC
Predictors and variability of antibiotic prescribing amongst family physicians | JAC
Predictors of Clostridioides difficile recurrence across a national cohort of veterans in outpatient, acute, and long-term care settings | AJHP
Antimicrobial use in UK long-term care facilities: results of a point prevalence survey | JAC
Rates, Predictors and Mortality of Community-Onset Bloodstream Infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis | CMI
A Decade On: Systematic Review of ClinicalTrials.gov Infectious Disease Trials, 2007-2017 | OFID
Factors associated with successful completion of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT): a 10-year review from a large West London service | IJAA
Reassessing the dosing of cefoxitin prophylaxis during major abdominal surgery: insights from microdialysis and population pharmacokinetic modelling | JAC
Warning: allergic to penicillin: association between penicillin allergy status in 2.3 million NHS general practice electronic health records, antibiotic prescribing and health outcomes | JAC
Impact of Reported β-Lactam Allergy on Management of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections | JPP
Implementation of antibiotic stewardship programmes in French ICUs in 2018: a nationwide cross-sectional survey | JAC
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Incorporate Bedside Nurses into Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention | Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf
Efficacy of combination therapy versus monotherapy in the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia pneumonia | JAC
Surgical site infection risk following cesarean deliveries covered by Medicaid or private insurance | ICHE
Hardwiring diagnostic stewardship using electronic ordering restrictions for gastrointestinal pathogen testing | ICHE
Oral vancomycin prophylaxis during systemic antibiotic exposure to prevent Clostridiodes difficile infection relapses | ICHE
Chlorhexidine for meatal cleaning in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections: a multicentre stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial | Lancet ID
Test stewardship, frequency and fidelity: Impact on reported hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile | ICHE
The role of electronic health record and add-on clinical decision support systems to enhance antimicrobial stewardship programs | ICHE
Public health importance of invasive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections surveillance in eight US counties, 2016 | CID
A nonlinear time-series analysis approach to identify thresholds in associations between population antibiotic use and rates of resistance | Nature Micro
Guideline-Based Clinical Assessment Versus Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Use in Pneumonia: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial | Annals of Emergency Medicine
Creation and Assessment of a Clinical Predictive Model for Candidemia in Patients with Candiduria | Mycosis
Use of continuous infusion ceftolozane-tazobactam with therapeutic drug monitoring in a patient with cystic fibrosis | AJHP
From OPAT to COpAT: implications of the OVIVA study for ambulatory management of bone and joint infection | JAC
Opioids and Infectious Diseases: A Converging Public Health Crisis | JID
Current options for the treatment of infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in different groups of patients | CMI
Understanding and Addressing CLSI Breakpoint Revisions – A Primer for Clinical Laboratories | JCM
The history of antibiotic treatment of osteomyelitis| OFID
Shifting Gears: The Future of Polymyxin Antibiotics | Antibiotics
Sepsis and antimicrobial stewardship: two sides of the same coin | BMJ Quality & Safety
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