This article is provided to help people interested in antimicrobial stewardship and infectious diseases keep up with some of the current literature.
Written By: Bassam Ghanem, Pharm.D., MS, BCPS
Edited By: Timothy P. Gauthier, Pharm.D., BCPS-AQ ID
[Last updated: 6 March 2019]
We took off the months of January and February, but here we are back in March! In this column two pharmacists with advanced training in infectious diseases and antimicrobial stewardship identify top new journal articles published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Many of these are identified, shared, and discussed via Twitter. The authors can be found on Twitter @ABsteward (B.G.) & @IDstewardship (T.G.).
Infectious diseases is a very exciting field. We hope you enjoy reading about some of these articles as much as we enjoy preparing this text! Here are some of the latest and greatest articles from the field of antimicrobial stewardship and infectious diseases published in the last couple months.
1. Effect of Vancomycin or Daptomycin With vs Without an Antistaphylococcal Beta-Lactam on Mortality, Bacteremia, Relapse, or Treatment Failure in Patients With MRSA Bacteremia: A Randomized Clinical Trial | JAMA
The CAMERA2 RCT concluded that the addition of an anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam to standard antibiotic therapy with vancomycin or daptomycin for patients with MRSA bacteremia did not result in significant improvement in the primary composite end point of mortality, persistent bacteremia, relapse, or treatment failurde. The study was stopped early because of increased risk of acute kidney injury in the intervention group.
2. Contact isolation versus standard precautions to decrease acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales in non-critical care wards: a cluster-randomised crossover trial | Lancet ID
In this cluster-randomised crossover trial, contact isolation showed no benefit when added to standard precautions for controlling the spread of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales on non-critical care adult wards with extensive surveillance screening.
3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Ceftriaxone and Doxycycline, with or Without Metronidazole, for the Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease | CID
This RCT concluded that the addition of metronidazole to ceftriaxone and doxycycline in women treated for acute PID was well tolerated and resulted in reduced endometrial anaerobes, decreased M. genitalium and reduced pelvic tenderness compared to ceftriaxone and doxycycline.
4. Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing in U.S. Childrens Hospitals: A National Point Prevalence Survey | CID
In this cross-sectional analysis of antibiotic prescribing at 32 US children’s hospitals, approximately 1 in 3 hospitalized children received one or more antibiotics at any given time. One quarter of these children received suboptimal therapy, and nearly half of suboptimal use was not captured by current ASP practices.
5. Empirical Anti-MRSA vs Standard Antibiotic Therapy and Risk of 30-Day Mortality in Patients Hospitalized for Pneumonia | JAMA Internal Medicine
This retrospective multicenter cohort study found that empirical anti-MRSA therapy was not correlated with decreased mortality for any group of individuals hospitalized for pneumonia.
6. The Effect of Infectious Diseases Consultation on Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida, and Pseudomonas Bloodstream Infections | OFID
A retrospective cohort study concluded that having no infectious disease consultation is associated with 4.5-fold increased hazard of death at 3 months and 5.8-fold increased hazard of death in hospital amongst patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA, Candida sp. and Pseudomonas bloodstream infections.
Additional New & Notable Publications
Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China | JAMA
Pharmacoepidemiology of Ceftazidime-Avibactam Use: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis of 210 US Hospitals | CID
Pharmacist-led Penicillin Allergy Assessment in the Emergency Department Reduced Empiric Fluoroquinolone Use | CID
Meropenem/Vaborbactam versus Ceftazidime/Avibactam for Treatment of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections | AAC
The utility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nares screening for patients with a diabetic foot infection | AAC
The impact of an electronic medical record nudge on reducing testing for hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection | ICHE
Self-reported beta-lactam allergy and the risk of surgical site infection: A retrospective cohort study | ICHE
Antibiotic prescribing choices and their comparative C. difficile infection risks: a longitudinal case-cohort study | CID
Piperacillin-Tazobactam-Resistant/ Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates: Resistance Mechanisms and In vitro-In vivo Discordance | IJA
Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records | Lancet
Consistent Detection of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Saliva | CID
Discontinuing Contact Precautions for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) Is Associated With Rising VRE Bloodstream Infection Rates in Ontario Hospitals, 2009-2018: A Quasi-experimental Study | CID
Effects of Influenza Vaccination in the United States during the 2018-2019 Influenza Season | CID
High Rates of Influenza-Associated Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis May Not Be Universal: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Alberta, Canada | CID
Is Piperacillin-Tazobactam Effective for the Treatment of Pyelonephritis Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Organisms? | CID
Infectious Diseases Consultation is Associated with Decreased Mortality in Enterococcal Bloodstream Infection | OFID
Inpatient Management of Uncomplicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in 34 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers: A Medication Use Evaluation | OFID
Stenotrophomonas Bacteremia Antibiotic Susceptibility and Prognostic Determinants: Mayo Clinic 10-Year Experience | OFID
Multicenter Cohort of Patients With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Receiving Daptomycin Plus Ceftaroline Compared With Other MRSA Treatment | OFID
A behavioural approach to specifying interventions: what insights can be gained for the reporting and implementation of interventions to reduce antibiotic use in hospitals? | JAC
Impact of time to antibiotic therapy on clinical outcome in patients with bacterial infections in the emergency department: implications for antimicrobial stewardship | CMI
Machine learning in infection management using routine electronic health records: tools, techniques, and reporting of future technology | CMI
Guidelines for pregnant women with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection | Lancet ID
Antimicrobial stewardship failure: time for a new model | JAC
Methodological features of clinical pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic studies of antibacterials and antifungals: a systematic review | JAC
Diagnosis of Severe Respiratory Infections in Immunocompromised Patients | ICM
Executive summary: surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children | ICM
Antimicrobial de-escalation as part of antimicrobial stewardship in intensive care: no simple answers to simple question – a viewpoint of experts | ICM
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) position statements on polymyxin B and colistin clinical breakpoints | CID
Epidemiology of Beta-Lactamase-Producing Pathogens | CMR
De-isolating COVID-19 Suspect Cases: A Continuing Challenge | CID
COVID-19: New Insights on a Rapidly Changing Epidemic | JAMA
CRE, CRO, CPE and CPO: terminology past its sell-by-date in an era of new antibiotics and regional carbapenemase epidemiology | CID
Hope on the Horizon: Novel Fungal Treatments in Development | OFID
Does This Patient Need Blood Cultures? A Scoping Review of Indications for Blood Cultures in Adult Non-neutropenic Inpatients | CID
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